The Spaniards of America are trying to save theirs. [97] The members of the Cabildo tried to convince him to give his support, but he left. [150] Beruti, Chiclana, French and Grela were allowed to pass. [153] Rodríguez headed to Azcuenaga's house to meet the other revolutionaries to plan the final stages of the revolution. Six years after the creation of the first Argentine government on 25 May 1810, delegates from the United Provinces of South America declared themselves independent from Spain on 9 July 1816. [84] Manuel Belgrano gave the following Monday as the deadline to confirm the open cabildo before taking direct action. European explorers arrived in Argentina as early as 1502, led by Américo Vespucio. [182] From 1814, Argentina descended into civil war. [41] The population did not allow Rafael de Sobremonte to continue as Viceroy. May 25 is Argentina’s National Day, also known as First Government Day. Year. 25th May: National Day of Argentina Today is the National Day of Argentina. [61] He and the other leaders were later beheaded, and their heads were exhibited as a deterrent. [61] Murillo tried to defend La Paz, but his 800 militiamen were completely outnumbered by the more than 5,000 soldiers sent from Lima. [173] The city was well defended, so it could easily resist an invasion. In other cities similar events are sponsored by the government, with dance, music, and art exhibitions as Argentineans celebrate the birth of their country. [137] There was a meeting at Rodríguez Peña's house. At first this added to the conflicts between Buenos Aires and the provinces during the Argentine Civil War, because the date in May related to Buenos Aires and the date of July 9 related to the whole country. [88] It was rumored that Cisneros had been killed, and that Saavedra would take control of the government. [144] Later historians doubt it, but consider it possible that the revolutionaries used distinctive marks of some kind for identification. [11] To achieve their economic objectives, Britain initially tried to invade Rio de la Plata and conquer key cities in Spanish America. [76], Although Viceroy Cisneros attempted to conceal the news of the Spanish defeat, the rumor had already spread throughout Buenos Aires. [233], A representation of a cabildo is used on Argentine 25-cent coins,[234] and an image of the Sun of May appears on the 5-cent coin. Argentina's Independence Day is celebrated on May 25 th every year, the people of Argentina take to the streets and participate in everything from marches and concerts to public rallies and meetings to celebrate May Revolution Day or Dia de la Revolucion de Mayo. The United States' declaration of independence from Great Britain in 1776 led criollos (Spanish peoples born in the Americas) to believe that revolution and independence from Spain were feasible. [216] This pressure was exerted by Lord Strangford, the British ambassador at the court of Rio de Janeiro; he expressed support for the Junta, but under the condition that "...the behavior is consistent, and that [the] Capital [is] retained on behalf of Mr. Dn. [102], According to the minutes, only about 251 out of the 450 officially invited guests attended the open cabildo. 25 de Mayo: National Day. [155] But, because of the late hour and the weather, the number of people in the plaza had declined. The ruse is known as the "Mask of Ferdinand VII". A formal declaration of independence was finally issued at the Congress of Tucumán on July 9, 1816. Argentina National Day 2017 Happy National Day Argentina! [1][2] Between 1775 and 1783, the American patriots of the Thirteen Colonies waged the American Revolutionary War against both the local loyalists and the Kingdom of Great Britain, eventually establishing a popular government in the place of the British monarchy. [195] Mitre regarded the May Revolution as an iconic expression of political egalitarianism: a conflict between modern freedoms and oppression represented by the Spanish monarchy, and an attempt to establish a national organization on constitutional principles as opposed to the charismatic authority of the caudillos. It wasn’t until July 9, 1816 that true independence from Spain was declared, following the example of other nations like Peru, Uruguay, and Paraguay. CW. [51] As a result of the failed mutiny, the rebel militias were disarmed. Day of Respect for Cultural Diversity 12 October 2020. [131] Notices were placed at various points throughout the city, which announced the imminent creation of a junta and the summoning of representatives from the provinces. [114] He said "...there shall be no doubt that it is the people that create authority or command. [10] France eventually invaded Sevilla, and a Council of Regency based in Cadiz replaced the disbanded Supreme Central Junta. [126] This proposal received 35 votes, and sought simply to replace Cisneros with Huidobro: Huidobro was the most senior military officer, and thus the natural candidate under current laws to replace the viceroy in the lack of a new appointment from Spain. [126], There were also many different proposals involving the removal of Cisneros. National Flag Day 20 June 2020. [137] They felt that the Cabildo would not pursue such a plot without the blessing of Saavedra and that Castelli should resign from the Junta. On this day, 201 years ago, thirty three congressmen gathered in Tucuman, Argentina and declared it … [201] Left-wing authors took a revisionist view based on nationalism and anti-imperialism; they minimized the dispute between criollos and peninsulars and portrayed events as a dispute between enlightenment and absolutism. That day, Spanish power over the Argentine provinces ended and that of Buenos Aires was established. We also provide Argentina holiday calendar for 2016 in Word, Excel, PDF and printable online formats. The voting lasted for a long time, and the result was to dismiss the Viceroy by a large majority: 155 votes to 69. [231] The Argentina Centennial and the Argentina Bicentennial were celebrated in 1910 and 2010. [36][37] They considered it an opportunity to get a local government instead of a European one, or a step towards a potential declaration of independence. Though … [81] During these secret meetings, they appointed a representative commission composed of Juan José Castelli and Martín Rodríguez to request that Cisneros convene an open cabildo to decide the future of the Viceroyalty. dissolution of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, "Actas capitulares desde el 21 hasta el 25 de Mayo de 1810, en Buenos Aires", "La historia poco conocida de San Martín", Retroversion of the sovereignty to the people, Historia de Belgrano y de la Independencia Argentina, Equestrian monument to General Manuel Belgrano,, 1810 in the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 08:24. Joseph's coronation was met with severe resistance in Spain, which started the Peninsular War, and the Supreme Central Junta took power in the name of the absent king. [168] The Banda Oriental, under Francisco Javier de Elío, remained a royalist stronghold. [25] This was in part because the clergy controlled the entire educational system in Spanish America, which led the population to hold the same conservative ideas and follow the same customs as in Spain. [67] He meant that he would not support rushed actions against the Viceroy, but would do so at a strategically favorable moment, such as when Napoleon's forces gained a decisive advantage in their war against Spain. [89] He compared the current international situation with that prevailing at the time of the mutiny of Álzaga over a year earlier, pointed out that Spain was now almost entirely under Napoleonic control and that the undefeated Spanish provinces were very small in comparison with the Americas. [65] However, he rejected economist José María Romero's proposal to banish a number of people considered dangerous to the Spanish regime, such as Saavedra, Paso, Vieytes, Castelli and Moreno, among others. [78], Not fooled by the Viceroy's communiqué, some criollos met at the houses of Nicolás Rodríguez Peña and Martín Rodríguez. [132] It stipulated that the Junta could not exercise judicial power, which was reserved for the Royal Audiencia of Buenos Aires; that Cisneros could not act without the support of the other members of the Junta; that the Cabildo could dismiss anyone who neglected his duty; that the Cabildo's consent would be required to create new taxes; that the Junta would sanction a general amnesty for those who had aired opinions at the open cabildo; and that the Junta would invite the other cities to send delegates. On that same day, May 25, the first new government was formed, but it was still under the influence of Spain since many of the members of the junta were Spanish descendents. In 1808, King Ferdinand VII of Spain abdicated in favor of Napoleon, who granted the throne to his brother, Joseph Bonaparte. [96] Leiva explained that everything would go ahead as planned, but the Cabildo needed time to prepare. The May Revolution was a direct reaction to Spain's Peninsular War. This national public holiday marks Argentina's independence from Spain which was declared on 9 July 1816. The revolution of May 1810 in Buenos Aires, intended to win the independence of Argentina from Spain, also had the consequence of emancipating the province of Buenos Aires from Argentina or, rather, of imposing the authority of this province upon the whole nation emancipated from Spain. [25], Buenos Aires and Montevideo successfully resisted two British invasions. Veinticinco de Mayo ("May 25") is the name of several administrative divisions, cities, public spaces and landforms of Argentina. Anniversary of the First Independent Government in Buenos Aires. This resulted in the outbreak of war between the regions that accepted the outcome of the events at Buenos Aires and those that did not. [135], These developments shocked the revolutionaries. [98] Demands for Cisneros' immediate resignation replaced those for an open cabildo. Meetings were held during May Week in 1810, and it was decided that a revolutionary junta should take control of the country. The Supreme Junta retreated to Cadiz and dissolved itself, and the Council of Regency of Spain and the Indies replaced it. May 25: Monday: National Day/May 1810 Revolution: National holiday: Jun 15: Monday: Commemoration of General Don Martín Miguel de Güemes: National holiday: Jun 20: Saturday: June Solstice: Season: … [179] It was dissolved shortly after the June 1811 defeat of the Argentine troops at the Battle of Huaqui, and two successive triumvirates exercised executive power over the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. Date. The May Pyramid was erected in the Plaza a year after the revolution, and was rebuilt in its present form in 1856. Criollos felt that soon any pretext would be enough to lead to the outbreak of revolution. Thus Britain needed to be able to trade with the Spanish colonies, but could not do so because the colonies were restricted to trade only with their parent state. [156] The people in the plaza saw it as a favorable omen for the revolution. [139] Cisneros wanted to wait for the following day, but they said that there was no time for further delays, so he finally agreed to resign. [14] Charles IV requested that Napoleon restore him to the throne; instead, Napoleon crowned his own brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as the new Spanish King. [168] The cities of the Upper Peru, however, did not take a position, owing to the recent outcomes of the Chuquisaca and La Paz Revolutions. [96] Belgrano protested about the guest list, which consisted of the wealthiest citizens, and thought that if the poor people were left outside there would be further unrest. [102] The principle of retroversion of the sovereignty to the people stated that, in the absence of the legitimate monarch, power returned to the people; they were entitled to form a new government. [28], The Liniers administration was popular among criollos, but not among peninsulars such as the merchant Martín de Álzaga and the Governor of Montevideo, Francisco Javier de Elío. [203] Thus, there are a number of conflicting perspectives about it, because different authors highlight different aspects. [49] A small number of criollos, notably Mariano Moreno, supported the mutiny,[47] but most of them did not. Ferdinand VII and his legitimate successors". [134][142] Historian Bartolomé Mitre stated that French and Beruti distributed blue and white ribbons, similar to the modern cockade of Argentina, among those present. [132] The Junta swore the oath of office that afternoon. [126] Many of them required the new authorities to be elected by the Cabildo. [210] The purpose of such a deception would have been to gain time to strengthen the position of the patriotic cause and avoid reactions that may have led to a counter-revolution, by making it appear that monarchical authority was still respected and that no revolution had taken place. [150] The Cabildo argued that Buenos Aires had no right to break the political system of the viceroyalty without discussing it with the other provinces; French and Chiclana replied that the call for a Congress had already been considered. [140] He sent a resignation letter to the Cabildo for consideration on the following day. [57] Javier de Elío accepted the authority of the new Viceroy, and dissolved the Junta of Montevideo. [169] This reduced the power of the counter-revolutionary army by means of desertions and sabotage. San Martin's Day 17 August 2020. [155] The Cabildo replied by requesting their demands in writing. The war for independence gradually shifted towards northern South America. [28][29][30] The Patricios Regiment, led by Cornelio Saavedra, was the biggest criollo army. [162] However, it faced several internal conflicts. [61] On May 25, 1809, the Chuquisaca Revolution deposed Ramón García de León y Pizarro as Governor of Chuquisaca and replaced him with Juan Antonio Alvarez de Arenales. [172], Montevideo, which had a historical rivalry with Buenos Aires, opposed the Primera Junta and the Council of Regency declared it the new capital of the Viceroyalty, along with Francisco Javier de Elío as the new Viceroy. May 25: Revolution Day June 17: General Martín Manuel de G ü emes Memorial Day June 20: General Belgrano Memorial Day (sometimes known as Flag Day, celebrating the creation of Argentina's national … on Argentina Festively Celebrates Its National Day, Truth and Justice Day Commemorated in Argentina, Uruguay celebrates Battle of Las Piedras Day, Argentina remembers the Death of San Martin. [56] The criollo militias shared Belgrano's proposal,[56] but Liniers handed over the government to Cisneros without resistance. [149] Leiva and Lezica requested that someone who could act as spokesman for the people should join them inside the hall and explain the people's desires. [190], Historiographical studies of the May Revolution do not face many doubts or unknown details. [83] Lezica asked for patience and time to persuade the Viceroy, and leave a massive demonstration as a last resort. [22] Two antagonistic factions emerged: the landowners wanted free trade so they could sell their products abroad, while the merchants, who benefited from the high prices of smuggled imports, opposed free trade because prices would come down. The Argentina Centennial and the Argentina Bicentennial were celebrated in 1910 and 2010. [171] Ocampo refused to shoot the captive Liniers; hence the execution ordered by the Junta was carried out by Juan José Castelli. The Spaniards of Spain have lost their land. French and Beruti signed the document, stating "for me and for six hundred more". [186] Most of the cities and provinces had distinctive populations, economies, attitudes, contexts, and interests. [114] Huidobro felt that the Cabildo should be in government, as it was the representative of the people. Let the ones from Spain deal with themselves as they can; do not worry, we American Spaniards know what we want and where we go. It celebrates the constitution of the first government that became independent from the colonial Spaniards after the May Revolution in 1810. [54] He arrived in Montevideo in June 1809 for the handover. [40], After the British invasion of 1806, Santiago de Liniers successfully reconquered Buenos Aires. [94] Domingo French, the mail carrier of the city, and Antonio Beruti, an employee of the treasury, led the rioters. 2015. [61] A swift reaction from the Spanish authorities defeated those rebellions. [75] Martín Rodríguez proposed to overthrow the Viceroy by force, but Castelli and Saavedra rejected this idea and proposed the convening of an open cabildo. [196] These authors' views were treated as canonical until the end of the 19th century, when the proximity of the centennial encouraged authors to seek new perspectives. May. However, this caused much popular unrest, so he resigned under pressure on May 25. [106] He feared that, no matter which party prevailed in the open cabildo, it would take revenge against the other, the Mutiny of Álzaga being a recent precedent. More specifically, this day marks the creation of the First Junta, a local authority that took over governance of Buenos Aires from the Spanish Viceroyalty on this date in 1810. [87] Colonel Cornelio Saavedra, head of the Regiment of Patricios, responded on behalf of all the criollo regiments. [16] This also led to Spain switching allegiances from France to Britain. [71] This was confirmed in Buenos Aires on May 17, when the British ship John Parish arrived in Montevideo; the most recent newspapers reported that members of the Supreme Central Junta had been dismissed. [121] The historian Vicente Fidel López revealed that his father, Vicente López y Planes, who was present at the event, saw that Mariano Moreno was worried near the end in spite of the majority achieved. [22] Events developed at a slower pace than in the United States independence movement. [71] His proposal was to make a government body that would rule on behalf of Ferdinand VII, together with Viceroy of Peru José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa, Governor of Potosí Francisco de Paula Sanz and President of the Royal Audiencia of Charcas Vicente Nieto. [147] They considered that the crowd had no legitimate right to influence something that the Cabildo had already decided and implemented. [224] When San Martín talked about enemies, he called them "royalists" or "Goths", but never "Spanish". These dates may be modified as official changes are announced, so please check back regularly for updates. [81] The Viceroy summoned military commanders to come to the fort at 7 pm,[87] to demand military support. There are departments of this name in the provinces of Chaco, Misiones, San Juan, Rio Negro and Buenos Aires, the latter holding the town of Veinticinco de Mayo. [114] Manuel Alberti, Miguel de Azcuénaga (who would be members of the Primera Junta some days later), Escalada and Argerich (or Aguirre) supported his vote, among others. That day, Spanish power over the Argentine provinces ended and that of Buenos Aires was established. If even a single member of the Central Junta of Seville were to land on our shores, we should receive him as the Sovereign. [88][102] All noteworthy religious and civilian people were present, as well as militia commanders and many prominent residents. On February 1, 1810, French troops took Seville and gained control of most of Andalusia. [230] This situation would change with the final defeat of Napoleon and the return of Ferdinand VII to the throne, as he began the Absolutist Restoration and persecuted the supporters of the new libertarian ideas within Spain. [13] In 1806, a small British army led by William Carr Beresford seized Buenos Aires for a brief time; a Montevidean army led by Santiago de Liniers liberated the city. Today the country celebrates its independence with the celebration of Revolution day. [41] He had escaped to Cordoba with the public treasury while the battle was still in progress. [12] When that failed, they chose to promote the Spanish-American aspirations of emancipation from Spain. Every country in the world in 1 calendar. [137] Tagle took a different view: he thought that Saavedra may have accepted out of weakness or naivety and that Castelli should stay in the Junta to counter the others' influence on him. [93] They learned the result of the meeting with Cisneros, but were unsure as to whether Cisneros intended to keep his word. [34] This political project, known as Carlotism, sought to prevent a French invasion of the Americas. This page contains the list of upcoming Argentina official public holidays, bank holidays, government holidays, regional public holidays, non-working national holidays and sectorial holidays from December 2020 to October 2021. On the 25 th of May 1810, after a week of events taking place in Buenos Aires which would eventually be known as the May Revolution, the first independent government of Argentina, La Primera Junta, was established, bringing the nation one step closer to its independence. [156], The Cabildo accepted the document and moved to the balcony to submit it directly to the people for ratification. [1], However, the spread of such ideas was forbidden in the Spanish territories, as was the sale of related books or their unauthorized possession. [38][39] The project was resisted by Viceroy Liniers, most peninsulars, and some criollos, including Cornelio Saavedra and the lawyers Mariano Moreno and Juan José Paso. Another consequence, also according to Luna, was the dissolution of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata into several different units. [148] Many of them, including Saavedra, did not appear. National Day is a public holiday in Argentina. [170] After the victory, the Primera Junta sent military expeditions to many other cities, to demand support and the election of representatives to it. The country formally established its independence with the adoption of its constitution in 1853. [106] He felt that the open cabildo would lack legitimacy if too many criollos were allowed to take part in it as a result of the aforementioned manipulation of the guest list. Consequently, there was a growing rivalry between criollos and peninsulars (those born in Spain). The following table lists the date and name for select national holidays in countries around the world. [154] He said that, besides the nearly 400 people already gathered, the barracks were full of people who supported them, and he threatened that they would take control, by force if necessary. It is celebrated as Argentina’s independence day but is actually celebrating a series of events that lead up to the May Revolution and ultimately Argentina’s independence from Spain. [84] In the fourth act, Morante made a patriotic speech, about the Gaul threat to Rome (the Gauls are ancestors of the French people) and the need for strong leadership to resist the danger. The May Revolution began the Argentine War of Independence, although no formal declaration of independence was issued at the time and the Primera Junta continued to govern in the name of the deposed king, Ferdinand VII. Most of the information was properly recorded at the time and was made available to the public by the Primera Junta as patriotic propaganda. This is a National holiday which is celebrated every May 25. Council of Regency of Spain and the Indies, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, retroversion of the sovereignty to the people, junta, like the ones established in Spain. [159] Saavedra spoke to the crowd, and then moved on to the Fort, among salvos of artillery and the ringing of bells. [232] By 1880, the federalization of Buenos Aires removed the local connotations and the May Revolution was considered the birth of the nation. And provinces had distinctive populations, economies, attitudes, contexts, and the people were present, as.. 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