0000001434 00000 n /H [ 872 232 ] demonstrates why affirmative action programs can be good for the country. Last 30 days; Last 90 days; Next 90 days; Global Store. Bowen and Bok interpret these facts to mean that an increase in the size of the black middle class justifies racial preferences. Bowen, William G. and Derek Bok. 0000003457 00000 n Shulman, Thomas I. Nygren, Stacy Berg Dale and Lauren A. Meserve. xref This closing of the gap, moreover, was due to rising black scores, not falling white ones, indicating that something -- perhaps the War on Poverty, perhaps increased black expectations, perhaps improved schooling, especially in math -- was working. 0000003107 00000 n 0000003560 00000 n 0000003766 00000 n /Linearized 1 See the article in its original context from. from diversity on campus, and addressing long-term societal needs (Bowen and Bok, 1998, p. 278). Almost all leading colleges and professional schools strongly support it. A co-author of that chapter is William G. Bowen. Bok and Bowen state that the journey from college admissions through career and family life is akin to moving down a long, winding river with many varied conditions. 1075 0 obj Chapters in ''The Black-White Test Score Gap'' explore the influence of parents, teachers, peers and society as a whole in explaining why blacks and whites perform differently on such tests. TimesMachine is an exclusive benefit for home delivery and digital subscribers. Rosen, “Damage Control.” ↩ 27 Critics of affirmative action say that it is unfair to black students to be forced to compete against whites who are better prepared for demanding academic work. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998, 472pp. There is no more important step to be taken along the road to racial justice than building and strengthening a black middle class. Bowen and Bok (1998) con-clude that minorities receive a greater premium for attend-ing a top-tier school than white students, and Kane (1998) finds that the gains associated with attending a more selec-tive college are higher for those with lower test scores. ↩ 26. Bowen, William G.; Bok, Derek (2000) [1998], The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, ISBN 0691050198; Bok, Derek (2001), The Trouble with Government, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0674004485 At the best schools, by contrast, efforts to diversify the student body translate into a 400-point bonus for minority students on the SAT tests. October 25, 1998, Section 7, Page 15 Buy Reprints. . 472 pp. <> >> The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions. Firm conclusions are hard to come by, and some of the authors disagree with the hypotheses suggested by others. International Shipping Eligible; Availability. . endobj They also matter. They argued that empowerment must encourage As Thomas J. Kane, who teaches public policy at Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government, points out in his contribution to the Jencks and Phillips collection, roughly 60 percent of America's institutions of higher education admit nearly all who apply and therefore do not give preference to any particular race. ''Eliminating racial differences in test performance,'' Jencks and Phillips write, ''would also allow colleges, professional schools and employers to phase out the racial preferences that have caused so much political trouble over the past generation.'' PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE AND DISSEMINATE THIS MATERIAL HAS BEEN GRANTED BY. from diversity on campus, and addressing long-term societal needs (Bowen and Bok, 1998, p. 278). >> In their most impressive finding, Bowen and Bok show that of the 700 or so black entering students from the class of 1976 who would not have been admitted to one of the nation's more selective institutions had strictly race-neutral criteria been applied, 225 obtained professional or graduate degrees, 70 became doctors, 60 became lawyers, 125 became business executives; and as a body, they earned an average of $71,000 annually. But it would be wrong to conclude from ''The Shape of the River'' that affirmative action works. What Bowen and Bok have proved is that going to a top college works. 1. . <> But a high proportion of those students were again the beneficiaries of lower standards for blacks and Hispanics. 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